Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP)
What is Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP)
Effluent Treatment Plant or commonly known as ETP is a kind of treatment of waste water. ETP or Effluent Treatment Plant is is used to purify the waste water from industries and to make it reusable by making it safe. Water from industries contains various impure substances i.e. grease, oil, toxic materials, chemicals etc. Hence this brings the requirements for an ETP Plant which works at various phases including biological, physical, chemical membrane processes.
How Does Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) Work
The work of an Effluent Treatment Plant is divided into various steps or phases. These phases are as follow:
1. Early treatment– The object of this phase is to separate large size physical contamination like: plastic, wood, piece of cloth, paper and such kind of substances. This phase include-
.Screening– This is the first step in any water treatment plant. This is where a carefully monitoring is placed to remove large floating solids.
.Grit Chamber– This process removes dense substances like- stones, metal, fragments of sand and dust from water and makes water ready to go through the next phases of purification.
.Clarifiers– Built with mechanical means, these tanks continue removes the remained solids before starting the biological process.
2. Primary Treatment– This treatment uses both physical and chemical methods to filter the water. This phase emphasis on removing suspended solids and organic matters.
.Flocculation– This is a physical process where the diminished particles are brought into the large group so that they can be easily removed from water.
.Coagulation– This is a process where coagulants are added for settling the solid particles of liquid into the large mass. It allow particle removal through sedimentation and filtration.
.Neutralization– The main purpose of this phase is maintaining the pH range of 6-9 to match the criteria of other processing units of ETP system.
.Primary Clarifiers– This is the part where the water’s momentum is controlled where the organic solids settles at the bottom of the tank which contain tool for removing floating solids, grease from the surface.
3 Biological Treatment– This treatment’s objective is further treating the effluent to remove remaining suspended solids and residuals. This phase is consist of biological and chemical process.
.Activated Sludge Process– In this process, biological floc composed of bacteria is used along with air against waste water from the industries which contains chemical, toxic substances, grease and oil etc.
.Aerated lagoons– This is a treatment pond with artificial aeration to enhance the biological oxidation of waste water.
.Rotating Biological Contactor– It allows waste water to contact with biological mediums to clean the pollutants from waste water before discharging the water in environment.
4 Advanced Treatment– This is the final process of water treatment to raise the quality of water so that it can be reused/recycled in environment.
.Chemical Coagulation and Sedimentation– This process increases the removal of solid particles after primary and biological treatments.
.Filtration– This is where the waste water passes through filtration plants containing large filter blocks to ensure good quality of water.
.Reverse Osmosis– Commonly known as RO where water forced through membrane by applying pressure as result this detain the the pollutants and allow water to pass through it.
.UV Disinfections– It is known as the favorable disinfectant especially for industrial waste water and that too without producing any by-product.